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El Nino / La Nina

The El Niño and La Niña are components of Terracycles.  El Nino and La Nina are effects linking the ocean to the atmosphere and help drive climate change.  As NASA, NOAA and other world science organizations continue to measure the oceans and atmosphere we can expect to see a clear link among solar irradiance, ENSO events, tides, plate tectonics, volcanism, global warming, ice advances, and other Earth cycles.

Every 1,500 years or so Greenland's climate had undergone temperature changes of up to 59 degrees Fahrenheit. ... The abrupt climate changes recorded in Greenland were matched by those in the tropics and seemed to correlate directly with El Nino or La Nina conditions. 
 - Space Daily

The El Niño Southern Oscillation, or ENSO, cyclically receives heat from the earth.  The causes for this heat are mentioned below.  As ENSO releases heat into the atmosphere, the atmosphere conducts the heat to cooler places on the planet.


The cooler places on the planet are the polar permafrosts, glaciers and ice caps.  Since the atmosphere is acting as a thermalconductor, it does not heat up itself.  Instead, the heat transported from the equatorial regions by ENSO is absorbed by the ice and results in thawing of the permafrost and melting of the glaciers and ice caps.  The thawing permafrost and glaciers, in turn, release carbon dioxide and methane stored from the last advance of ice known as the Pleistocene Period.  This pattern can be seen in the following graph...

Notice that the carbon dioxide rate of increase closely mirrors the ENSO variations.  Carbon dioxide increase occurs duringsummer months and mainly in the polar most latitudes.  This points to the thawing permafrost, melting glaciers, and shrinking Polar ice caps as having a key role of carbon dioxide emissions.  This is not to say that the increase in carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is caused by nature.  The extra carbon dioxide in the atmosphere mostly comes from pumping sequestered carbon in the form of hydrocarbons and coal into the biosphere.  

Why do thawing permafrost and melting polar ice caps increase the rate of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere?  Because there was a higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at the time the glaciers were formed.  Also, there was abundant vegetation in the polar regions, vegetation that has been frozen but is now decomposing and thus releasing more carbon dioxide (and other gases such as methane) back into the carbon cycle.  Human consumption of carbon dioxide is fairly consistent, but nature adds carbon dioxide back into the biosphere during periods of ice thaw, thus the carbon dioxide growth rate varies with natural cycles.

During past ice ages, the tropical Pacific Ocean behaved rather as it does today in an El Niño event, bringing downpours to some places and drought to others, say US researchers. The link might help us to understand and predict how and why the Earth's climate can change rapidly.
 - Nature
Dr. Dan Walker at the University of Hawai'i has noticed a strong correlation between seismic activity on the East Pacific Rise (which he presumes indicates an eruption) and El Nino cycles over the past ~25 years. It is the belief of Dr. Walker and others that large numbers of underwater volcanoes contribute toward the heating of the oceans.  There were 56 volcanoes having confirmed eruptions in 2001-2002.  There is no doubt that volcanoes produce heat, and over 3/4 of the yearly magma budget occurs under our world oceans.  Add to the underwater magma the number of hydrothermal vents and there certainly could be enough heat to make a difference.

Major factors contributing to volcanic activity are explained in the Terracycle theory as solar activity, thawing ice, and daily tides.  According to the Terracycles theory, volcanic activity should gradually peak toward the time when super storms are possible.

The glaciers are melting at a fast rate releasing more liquid water into the oceans every day.  The Pacific Plate is only a little more than 6 miles thick with nearly 2.5 miles average depth of ocean resting on it.  The Pacific Plate is nearly entirely covered by the Pacific Ocean.  It is like holding a large flat pan of water and having someone continually add water to it, causing the pan to become more and more unstable.  Each day the Earth revolves, the ocean tides sweep a large mass of water from east to west across the Pacific Plate.  The tides thus transfer gravitational energy from the sun and moon through to the Pacific plates, storing this energy little by little until a trigger causes the energy to be released as an earthquake and at the same time driving the tectonic plate movements.

As the Sun and Moon appear to rise over the Pacific, large volumes of water are pulled against the American coasts.  As the Sun and Moon appear to set in the West large amounts of water are pulled against the South Pacific Islands and Asian countries causing a repetitious pulsing and stretching of the Pacific Plate.   The Western Pacific Plate is being pushed under the Asian Continent and the Nazca Plate (Eastern Pacific) is being pushed under the South American Continent by this daily pulsing.  The effect is dramatic and can easily be seen on a bathymetric map. (Bathymetric and topographical maps) The Nazca and Pacific Plates are the fastest spreading seafloor on the planet.  The increase in ocean level from melting glaciers and ice caps is slowly accelerating the process by adding water mass to the daily tides.  The added instability causes earthquakes and volcanic action, ultimately bringing more heat and carbon dioxide to the troposphere and contributing along with solar radiation to the cycle ofglacial melting.

In addition, the daily rotation of our planet, under the influence of lunar and solar gravity, causes a pressure wave to travel daily around the earth with four peaks (each at 90º intervals).  These daily pressure waves can release the stored energy from the tides.  E.D.G. has been researching pressure waves for several years as a means for predicting earthquakes.

The positive feedback of "volcanic heating  atmospheric heating through El Niño    glacial melting  increased ocean levels  increased volcanic activity" contributes to the thermal momentum of the Terracycle.  That is, all of these cycles feedback into each other to increase the Earth's surface temperature until something comes along to take the heat away.

In the oceans, carbon dioxide exchange is largely controlled by sea surface temperatures, circulating currents, and by the biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. carbon dioxide can dissolve easily into the ocean and the amount of carbon dioxide that the ocean can hold depends on ocean temperature and the amount of carbon dioxide already present. Cold ocean temperatures favor the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere whereas warm temperatures can cause the ocean surface to release carbon dioxide. -NASA Earth Observatory

More thermal momentum arises from the carbon cycle and especially from human carbon consumption.  As the glacial ice and permafrost melt, more sequestered carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.  As ocean temperatures rise more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.

So it is seen that a combination of increasing thermal effects contribute greatly to the thawing of earth's ice.  When the human contribution to global warming is discussed, usually it refers to the amount of sequestered carbon we bring up from the ground in the form of hydrocarbons.  Our contribution to carbon dioxide cycle is noteworthy on two accounts.  We contribute about 5% of all the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere every day (the rest is released into the atmosphere by non-human causes but is also recycled back out of the atmosphere by other non-human causes.)  The second part of this is that the carbon we release into the atmosphere used to be part of the atmosphere when the planet had a much more stable climate.  All the coal, natural gas, and oil came from asteroid-initiated, mass-burials of an ancient and rich biosphere.  

When large ancient asteroids hit the earth, enormous clouds of dust and radiation went into the atmosphere and killed off most life on the planet.  This dust settled and much of the carbon from animals and plants was buried and eventually became our present day hydrocarbon and coal fuels.  Before the asteroid impacts, the earth was much warmer due to a greater concentration of carbon in the biosphere.  But when large amounts of carbon were sequestered under the ground, the earth became cooler and eventually drifted into an ice age.  

Under normal circumstances, it would take about 100 million years for the tectonic plates to recycle and thus burn up the hydrocarbons in the mantle and release them as carbon dioxide through volcanoes.  It could very well be that humans are contributing to global warming.  But we are also cutting out about 30 to 40 million years of slow tectonic movements necessary for returning the earth to its normal state.

Perhaps we are not looking at the human contribution to global stability in the correct way.  Maybe we need to bring up even more sequestered carbon from within the earth?  Only by directing science toward a complete Terracycle research program and investigating the possibility of terra forming our own planet (by regulating hydrocarbon mining) can we say for certain whether anthropomorphic carbon production is good or bad. 

Reports to the Nation on Our Changing Planet: The Climate SystemNOAA