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Terracycles Introduction

The Terracycles evidence of super storms is convincing with just 5 basic observations. 

  1. In order for the Earth to rapidly cool, heat must be removed from the Earth at a rapid rate.
  2. The ice sheets only occurred on half of the Earth’s northern hemisphere
  3. Glacial sketches made by scientists show that ice sheets spread from centralized locations.
  4. The Atlantic Conveyor extended all the way to the Labrador and Norwegian Seas during the time of abrupt climate change.
  5. The Greenland Ice Cores show a brief period of exceedingly high winds

From these five basic observations we can apply known meteorological principles to see how a super storm can develop and recognize the clear warning signs and prepare ourselves for its effects.

In the first observation, in order for the Earth to rapidly cool, heat must be removed from the Earth at a rapid rate.  According to Richard B. Alley, author of The Two Mile Time Machine, “Climate in the past has been wildly variable, with larger, faster changes than anything industrial or agricultural humans have ever faced.”1  In fact, Richard Alley states with a high degree of certainty that the change occurred in one year or less, definitely less than two years.2  Today scientists are worried about a few degrees F global temperature increase in 100 years.3  But about 11,500 years ago the atmosphere over Greenland warmed by 15 degrees F in less than a decade.4

Since the Sun is the only known energy source that could heat the Earth by 15 degrees F in less than a decade, 11,500 years ago something happened to the atmosphere to cause it to retain more solar heat.  Ice core evidence shows that atmospheric methane increased during this time.5  An increase of atmospheric methane suggests an increase in plant decay from swamps and bogs, which would have come from an increase in planetary atmospheric water vapor.

So in less than a decade the Earth’s atmosphere became very humid, and retained more heat, thus causing the temperatures over Greenland to increase by 15 degrees F.  Other global evidence supports the ice core data, showing this event was not isolated. 

This sudden warming of the Earth was due to the Greenhouse Effect where the primary greenhouse gas was water vapor.  But just as suddenly, the heat disappeared.  According to the data presented by Richard Alley, the warmed Earth cooled suddenly in less than a year.2  Well just as the solar heat came from beyond the atmosphere to heat the planet, the terrestrial heat must go back into space to cool the planet. 

If we rely solely on the Thermohaline Circulation theory to explain rapid global cooling, that doesn’t work, because the heat in Thermohaline Circulation is merely moved to a different place.  If the Atlantic Conveyor stops bringing heat up to Europe, the heat is still there in the ocean and has to go someplace else.  But the entire planet cooled in less than a year, 11,500 years ago. The heat wasn’t just transferred from one place to another, it was removed from the atmosphere altogether.

This image appears to be distorted in order to give the impression that the ice sheets covered the entire Northern Hemisphere.  Compare the white areas above to a standard desk globe to see the full extent of the distortion.
Click on image to go to image source

The second observation is that the ice sheets of the past 20,000 years, at least, did not occur around the entire Northern Hemisphere.  If you have a globe handy, go take a look at it.  The ice sheets from the ice age occurred in Canada but not Alaska.  They also occurred over Norway and down into Europe but not in Siberia.  The ice sheets only covered half of the Northern Hemisphere.  And although the ice sheets started near the Arctic Circle, the glaciers traveled over 1000 miles through much more temperate climate; much further south than Alaska or Siberia.

I can’t believe this observation hasn’t struck anybody else as being odd.  If North America was so cold that ice would not melt in the summer time, then why didn’t Alaska and Siberia also have ice sheets?  The climate is considerably warmer today than 11,500 years ago, or even 20,000 years ago, and yet there is permafrost in Siberia and Alaska but not in most of the area where the ice sheets existed in Canada and Europe.

Now if the Thermohaline Circulation was the significant factor in global cooling, and it couldn’t be because it only shifts heat from one location to another, then why did Canada end up with vast ice sheets and Siberia and Alaska did not?  The cold air from the Thermohaline Circulation would have had to travel all the way around the planet, across Siberia, and the Pacific Ocean before it would get back to Canada.  Certainly we would see ice sheets form over Asia or Siberia before we would see ice sheets in Canada.  But it didn’t happen.

So even though we know that Thermohaline Circulation failure does occur at the same time as abrupt global climate change, it must be the effect of a greater system and not the cause of global cooling.  Dr. Richard Seager of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory has also concluded that Thermohaline Circulation is not the dominant factor in determining climate variability. 

The third observation is based on sketches drawn by the Illinois State Geological Survey that the Canadian Laurentide and Cordellian Glaciers were formed primarily in two separate locations.  I’ll try to explain this graphically. 

The ice sheet is not static.  It is actually a river of ice.  But unlike mountain glaciers that form at the top of a mountain and run down a ravine, the Laurentide and Cordellian glaciers formed over relatively flat land.  The glaciers flowed outward in a full 360 degrees from a central point.  In order for this to happen, all of the snow would have to fall at these two particular central points.

The Cordellian Glacier formed at a point just west of Hudson.  The Laurentide Glacier that spread in all directions and from Canada down through the Great Lakes, and as far south as Illinois, began over Labrador, Canada.  Now if the widely accepted view of ice sheet formation were correct, the ice sheet would have been formed from falling snow over a long period of time and it would have been spread more evenly across the continent.  But the data does not support an ice sheet formed from snow falling over a broad area.

The fourth observation is that at 11,500 years ago the Atlantic Conveyor extended well into the Labrador Sea and all the way up into the Norwegian Sea.  The data for this observation was published many years ago, but now there is no readily available data either way.  It is likely this crucial data is being ignored by the scientific community because it raises grave doubts about the Thermohaline Circulation theory as being a driver of global climate.

The significance of this observation is that the Atlantic Conveyor brings warm water into the northern latitudes.  Since the atmospheric temperature over Greenland warmed up over 15 degrees F it is reasonable to expect the ocean temperatures also warmed up.  Even today the Atlantic Conveyor, also known as the Gulf Stream, exceeds temperatures of 80 degrees F.

That the Atlantic Conveyor extended much further into the Labrador and Norwegian Seas is of particular interest as far as the super storm theory goes.  I’ll explain this a little later.

The fifth observation goes back to the Greenland ice cores.  According to Richard Alley the data suggests that as Greenland became warmer 11,500 years ago, it also became stormier.6  And this is the key to understanding rapid climate change.  If there is going to be a rapid decrease in global temperature, and we’re talking less than a year, then there has to be a very energetic mechanism for removing the heat from the atmosphere.

Kerry Emanuel is a well-published meteorologist from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  He has designed a computerized hurricane simulator.  Without even looking for super storms, Kerry Emanuel found that super storms do fit the present understanding of hurricane mechanics, even if they don’t physically occur at this time.

In an extreme super storm case, according to Kerry Emanuel, “Winds whip around its center at 500 miles an hour. Water vapor, sea spray and storm debris are catapulted into the atmosphere, punching a hole in the stratosphere 20 miles above the Earth's surface.”

So we know that rapid global cooling requires the removal of an enormous amount of heat from the Earth in a very short time and the Thermohaline Circulation theory does not remove heat from the Earth, it merely displaces it somewhere else.  We know that ice sheets didn’t form uniformly across the Polar region, but start from very localized points near the Arctic Circle.  We know that when the Earth’s temperature rises, the Atlantic Conveyor extends further north into the Labrador and Norwegian Seas.  And we know that unusually strong storms occurred in Greenland 11,500 years ago and at the time of abrupt climate change.

 Clear-sky Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)
Click on image to view source

In recent years a European consortium led by the UK, together with Belgium and Italy, launched the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget satellite.  This satellite makes accurate measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget from geostationary orbit.  In short, it measures the amount of heat and where the heat comes from when leaving Earth’s atmosphere.  As it turns out, most of the heat leaving the Earth’s atmosphere exits in locations where cyclonic storms occur. 

There are much more data supporting super storm formation in the Arctic Circle. The Coriolis effect contributes to strong winds that encircle the globe at high latitudes.  The Woolly Mammoths 11,500 years ago are found not only quick frozen in water and mud, complete with their last meal in their mouths, but their bodies and the bodies of all other animal species, as well as plants, are dismembered, broken, and strewn about.  There are also the Biblical and Sumerian stories of ancient floods.  And now we are finding numerous ancient,flooded cities that flourished right up to 11,500 years ago.

Super storms are not a fantasy or science fiction.  They are the explanation for all the real data science is witnessing today.

According to legends of Atlantis, the great country suffered volcanism, enormous earthquakes, and permanent inundation by the oceans.  I contend the super storms caused all this.

When the super storms in the Arctic get started, they are massive hurricanes.  Their winds are not only supported by the constant flow of warm water from the Atlantic Conveyor, but the Coriolis Effect also contributes to the cyclonic winds.  The warm water and air drawn in from the Atlantic Conveyor, evaporates.  This creates convection and the heat rises up through the eye wall of the storm.  The storm increases updraft velocity such that not all evaporation takes place near the Earth’s surface.  With sufficient air velocity the warm moist air is evaporating all the way up to the upper atmosphere.  It is well known in meteorology that upper atmospheric liquid water can exist in a super-cooled state to minus 40 degrees F, even in today’s climate.

With super storm rapid updraft velocity and pressure changes, water can likely be super cooled to much lower temperatures. This would have the effect of cooling the upper atmosphere from a gaseous state to a liquid state.  The fast rising air from the hurricane eye wall would keep large pools of the liquid atmosphere suspended.  And then, when there is too much liquid atmosphere, it spills over and floods the Earth, instantly freezing the copious rainfalls in the outer bands of the super storm, even while the temperatures at the center of the storm are still 90 degrees F or warmer.

This unusual image of Hurricane Bonnie from high above the Earth shows what powerful hurricanes do just before they intensify -- build towers of clouds high into the sky.
Hyper Hurricanes

The heat from the evaporating air in the eye wall continues to rise right up through the stratosphere and gets radiated into space.  In effect, the super storm becomes a massive air conditioner, just like the ones we use in our houses.  But instead of pumping the heat out of a room, the hurricane pumps the heat off the planet.  Hurricanes, or any cyclonic storms, are nature’s air conditioning units for keeping the Earth from overheating.  But in a super storm situation, the air conditioner goes too far and freezes the Earth.  That is how abrupt global warming produces abrupt global cooling.

While the super storm is at its peak and it begins pouring ice down in a specific location on the planet, the ice builds up to an enormous mountain many miles high.  Keep in mind; one inch of rain is equal to 1 foot of snow.  The snow and ice fills a volume much greater than liquid water.

Instant Freezing Weather
Illinois 1836

During the super storm it was raining in copious amounts.  Even today we see extreme events where over 70 inches of rain (January 7-8, 1966, Foc Foc, La Réunion) can fall in 24 hours.  In a super storm there is at least that much rain falling and over a much greater area; and the surface winds blow hundreds of miles per hour.  When the liquid atmosphere falls, all of the flooded areas freeze instantly while more ice and eventually snow continues to fall.

During the super storm, the hurricane winds are circling the entire Arctic Circle while there are also localized hurricanes occurring over Labrador and the Norwegian Sea.  During this time the Earth looks, from space, much like Jupiter with its bands of clouds and its big red spot.  Places like Siberia and Alaska get flooded and instantly freeze, but the severe icing takes place specifically over Northern Canada and the Norwegian Sea, which explains why the ice sheets don’t occur all the way around the Northern Hemisphere.

Due to the spin of the Earth, the oceans normally bulge at the equator.  And so when water is drawn from the sea to feed the super storm, a greater proportion of water mass is transferred from the equator to the eye of the super storms where it eventually gets converted to ice.  Since the ice is falling on only half of the Northern Hemisphere near the location of the super storm eye walls, the Earth suddenly finds itself a little off balance and begins to wobble.  Also, a disproportionate amount of water mass is no longer at the equator, releasing pressure from the crust.

The Earth is like a large jelly ball.  So with the extra ice weight in the northern latitude, the Earth’s crust compressed over Northern Canada and popped out at the equator where there is less weight.  This sudden rise in equatorial crustal elevation pushes the oceans toward the mid latitudes, at about 25 degrees north and south of the equator.  Ancient cities such as Atlantisin the Caribbean, Yonaguni near Okinawa, the cities off the coast of India, the Mediterranean, and Sumaria, would have been inundated with a sudden 300-foot rise in sea level.  And of course, enormous earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis would accompany the Earth’s convulsions.  According to the Atlantis legend, this all occurred in one day.  (This says nothing of the fact that an entire city was destroyed by a nuclear weapon in India between 8000 and 12,000 years ago, demonstrating that civilizations were advanced.  Other evidence of nuclear destruction in that time period is found in North America.)

It is known that the Eastern Seaboard of the United States was once submerged due to the weight of ice over Canada.  This explains why whale bones were discovered in Vermont.  These whales died after the glacial advance, so it is safe to assume that the Northeastern United States was depressed and underwater at that time relatively soon after the super storm.   This would result in the displacement of a tremendous amount of magma under the North American Continent.  And just as pressing down on the crust would create a depression, a wave would begin which has a crest and thus further away from the ice mountain the land would actually rise.

About 450 miles south of Vermont, opposite the mouth of the Hudson River is a very deep, submerged canyon that extends over 400 miles out into the Atlantic Ocean.  In order for this canyon to form, it must have been above the ocean.  And since the Northeast United States was submerged due to the ice mountain, it stands to reason that this canyon is evidence that New York was raised out of the ocean during this time.

With this type of extreme geological activity, one would expect to see volcanism and large faults within the Earth in these areas.  And this is exactly what we see from the GLORIA Survey.  Also, the entire Eastern United States has evidence of numerous lava flows.  Since the super storm is a recurring phenomenon going back hundreds of millions of years, these Eastern United States lava flows represent super storm induced crustal buckling over a long period of time.  The lack of volcanic cones in the Eastern United States is further evidence that these lava flows are "one-time" events associated with the uplifting and sinking of the Earth.  People living in the Northeastern United States and who drive the Interstate system will notice the several "fresh looking" lava flows in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Pennsylvania, which the highway is cut through.

In Africa, there used to be an extensive river system in Egypt where the Sahara Desert now exists.  

The super storm theory perfectly accounts for all the known data present in the paleoclimate record and even fits many of the known legends handed down for over 10,000 years. 

The significance of what I have just stated even applies to today.  For, even if another super storm does not occur in the near future, we are still due for a further rebound of the Earth’s crust.  Now that the ice sheets have significantly melted, Eastern Canada, which was pushed a half-mile into the Earth 11,500 years ago, is still springing back up.  Also, the liquid water isreturning to the equator and pushing down on the crust.  Eventually we will see a sudden crustal movement as the equatorial crust pushes back down and draws the ocean water back toward the equator.  Looking at a map of oceanic fracture zones on both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Central America and the Caribbean provides the smoking gun to prove this theory.


The Two-Mile Time Machine,  Richard B. Alley

1. Climate in the past has been wildly variable, with larger, faster changes than anything industrial or agricultural humans have ever faced.  pg 83

2. Climate changed in less than two years. pg 111

4. Greenland warmed by about 15ºF in a decade or less. pg 112

5. Greenland warmed abruptly, and then methane rose more slowly, so the warming was not caused primarily by methane. pg 115

6. The warming in Greenland should have increased the snowfall rate there, but the observed change in snowfall was even larger than be explained by warmer air delivering more moisture.  This suggests that the warming caused Greenland to become stormier. pg 116

NOAA Global Warming FAQ

3. According to the range of possible forcing scenarios, and taking into account uncertainty in climate model performance, the IPCC projects a global temperature increase of anywhere from 1.4 - 5.8°C from 1990-2100.